A    Climacteric and Non-climacteric Fruit List


Fruits were once classified as only either/or Climacteric/Non climacteric but with time many variations between the two types have been found. this original classification is better seen as two extremes of the process. Ethylene/CO2 production is generally thought as a major part of ripening but the kiwifruit has no rise in production until near the end of the ripening process when they become soft. In kiwifruit, structural alterations in cell walls became apparent at advanced stages of softening and showed predominantly dissolution of the middle lamella^. This middle lamella dissolution has also been found in several other fruits including apples and pears.

While ripening is no longer perceived as always being driven by ethylene production or by a rise in respiration the usage of the terms Climacteric and Non climacteric remains a useful method of categorizing fruit ripening.
C

The table below has Climacteric and Non climacteric listings as well as flower information for a number of species of fruits. As more information available (reader's contributions welcomed) the list will be expanded. In very general terms a climacteric fruit can be picked from the tree at full size or maturity but before it is 'ripe' and allowed to ripen off the tree. Generally there is an increase in flavor quality, juice, sugars and other factors. Again, in general terms, non climacteric fruits tend to maintain what ever quality they had at harvest without many beneficial changes.

More technically, in climacteric fruit 'ripening' is controlled by the fruits production of Ethylene and a significant increase in CO2 production. Non climacteric fruit produce little or no Ethylene and no large increase in CO2 production. Some fruits are picked full sized and green in color and held under refrigeration with Ethylene gas added to make them suitable for sale. It seems that much of what we know about the ripening of non climacteric fruit remains poorly understood.

Some varieties of different fruit may exhibit a change in ripening when picked but still be mostly non-climacteric (some literature suggests that some grape varieties are climacteric, some citrus are considered better flavored after chilling or storage (some oranges, some grapefruit)). As information is supplied by readers the list will be updated.

CL = Climacteric          NC = Non-Climacteric    IMG = Image (Not Yet Implemented)        Common Names Table Link

Latin Name
Common Name
Type

~~ A ~~



Actinidia deliciosa Kiwi
CL

Adansonia digitata
Baobab
CL

Anacardium occidentale Cashew
NC

Ananas comosus Pineapple
NC

Annona cherimola Cherimoya
CL

Annona hybrid Atemoya
CL

Annona muricata Soursop
CL

Annona squamosa Sugarapple
CL

Artocarpus altilis Breadfruit
CL

Artocarpus heterophyllus Jakfruit, Jackfruit
CL

Asimina triloba Pawpaw
CL

Averrhoa carambola Carambola
NC

~~ B ~~


Bactris gasipaes Pejibaye
--

Borojoa patinoi Borojo
NC

Brosimum alicastrum Breadnut
--

Bunchosia armeniaca Peanutbutter Fruit
CL

~~ C ~~


Carica papaya Papaya
CL

Casimiroa edulis Casimiroa, White Sapote
--

Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus Watermelon
NC

Citrus aurantiifolia Lime, Kinnow
NC

Citrus grandis Pummelo
NC?

Citrus limetta Mousambi, Sweet Lemon, Sweet Lime NC

Citrus paradisi Grapefruit
NC?

Citrus reticulata Mandarin
NC

Citrus sinensis Orange
NC

Cucumis melo Cantaloupe, Muskmelon, Rockmelon NC

~~ D ~~


Dimocarpus longan Longan, Dragon's Eye
NC

Diospyros digyna Black Sapote, Chocolate Pudding Fruit CL

Diospyros kaki Oriental Persimmon CL

Diospyros virginiana Persimmon
CL?

Dovyalis caffra Kei Apple
CL

Durio zibethinus Durian
CL

~~ E ~~


Eriobotrya japonica Loquat
NC?

Eugenia brasiliensis Grumichama
NC

Eugenia uniflora Surinam Cherry
NC

~~ F ~~


Feijoa sellowiana Feijoa
CL

Ficus carica Fig
CL

Flacourtia indica Governor’s Plum --

Fortunella sp. Kumquat
NC?

Fragaria × ananassa, Fragaria sp. Strawberry
NC

~~ G ~~


Garcinia cambogia Citrin, Gambooge CL

Garcinia mangostana Mangosteen CL?

Garcinia prainiana Button Mangosteen
CL



Latin Name
Common Name
Type

~~ L ~~


Lansium domesticum* Langsat,
CL?

Lansium parasiticum* Duku --

Litchi chinensis Lychee, Litchi
NC

Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato
CL

~~ M ~~



Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia Nut --

Malus domestica Apple
CL

Mangifera indica Mango
CL

Manilkara zapota Sapodilla
CL

Monstera deliciosa Monstera
CL

Musa sp.
Banana, Plantain CL

~~ N ~~



Nephelium lappaceum Rambutan
NC

~~ P ~~


Passiflora edulis Purple Passion Fruit
CL

Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Yellow Passion Fruit
CL

Passiflora quadrangularis Giant Granadilla
CL

Persea americana
Avocado
CL

Poraqueiba sericea Umari Roxo
NC

Pourouma cecropiaefolia Amazon Tree Grape --

Pouteria caimito Caimito
CL

Pouteria campechiana Canistel
CL

Pouteria sapota Mamey Sapote
CL

Pouteria sp Ross Sapote
CL

Prunus persica Peach
CL

Prunus armeniaca Apricot
CL

Prunus spp., P. domestica, P. salicina Plum
CL

Prunus spp., P. avium, P. cerasus Cherry
CL

Psidium friedrichsthalianum Cost Rican Guava
CL

Psidium cattleianum Cattley Guava
CL

Psidium guajava Guava
CL

Punica granatum Pomegranate
NC

Pyrus spp., Pyrus communis subsp. communis Pear
CL

* There is some discussion as to Lansium domesticum being a synonym of Lansium parasiticum. Due to the difference in the two I have left them separate. L. domesticum fruit have a short shelf life and seem quite Climacteric in nature where the fruit of L. parasiticum  seem somewhat non Climacteric less so.


Latin Name
Common Name
Type

~~ R ~~


Rubus fruticosus Blackberry, Thornless Blackberry
NC
Rubus idaeus Red Raspberry
NC
Rubus occidentalis Black Raspberry
NC

Rubus sp. Raspberry
NC
~~ S ~~



Salacca edulis Salak
--

Sandoricum koetjape Santol
--

Syzygium malaccense Malay Apple
NC

Syzygium samarangense Wax Jambu
NC

~~ T ~~



Tamarindus indica Tamarind
--

~~ V ~~



Vitis sp. Grapes
NC

~~ Z ~~



Ziziphus mauritiana Indian Jujube
CL

Ziziphus spina-christi Christ's Thorn Jujube CL?


CL = Climacteric          NC = Non-Climacteric
^lamella:  a thin plate, scale, membrane, or layer, as of tissue, or cell walls

Help us improve this table. Please let us know which plants are Climacteric and which are not - send us the Latin name and common name and details if you can. We would also like a photo for each fruit - full credit will be given.





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