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The Florida Experience:

Importation, Breeding and Exportation

Bob Knight
Robert J. Knight, Jr
Tropical Research & Education Center, University of Florida
18905 S.W. 280th Street Homestead, FL 33031 - 1344

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No. R-06524
Although the title assigned me covers "the Florida experience" I am going to have to pay some attention to California as well because in the early days some people in California made significant contributions to developments in Florida.

    a. California. In the early days of California's settlement from Mexico, avocado seedlings apparently were not brought north along with the fig, orange, grape and olive which were planted at the Franciscan missions as these were established (Wolfe et al., 1934). The first recorded avocado introduction to California was prior to 1856, when a tree from Nicaragua was observed growing near San Gabriel (Condit, 1916). Seedlings were brought from Mexico to Santa Barbara in 1871, and in 1880 seeds from Guatemala were planted in Los Angeles.

Foundation of the West India Gardens at Altadena in the early 1900s involved an effort by F. O. (Fred) Popenoe, who had spent some time earlier in his career in Central America, to introduce and acclimatize some of the subtropical fruit crops he had encountered there. He was the father of Paul and Wilson Popenoe, both of whom for parts of their illustrious careers were plant explorers who had considerable impact on horticulture in the Americas. In 1911 Fred Popenoe sent Carl Schmidt to Mexico on a plant exploration trip to the Atlixco area in Puebla State to collect and return any avocado selections that appeared to be of interest for cultivation in California. One of these turned out to have tremendous impact on horticulture, first in California and subsequently in much of the rest of the avocado-growing world. Avocado fruit grown in the area of Atlixco was marketed in Los Angeles for some years before the Mexican revolution, which began in 1910, so a good many seeds from there were undoubtedly planted in southern California in the early 1900s. (Popenoe, 1926)

Plants grown from Carl Schmidt's collections of avocado budwood got off to a good start in California, but were severely damaged by a cold spell in 1913. In the course of assessing recovery from the freeze damage, Wilson Popenoe and his father came upon a plant, Number 15 of Carl Schmidt's collection, that impressed them with its strong growth. Wilson was studying Spanish at the time, and the two of them agreed that 'Fuerte' ("strong" in Spanish) would be an appropriate name for it. 'Fuerte' stuck, becoming the avocado cultivar most widely planted about the world for many years.

The West India Gardens eventually went out of business, but Carl Schmidt's introduction Number 15 went on to have lasting impact. There was a growing interest in subtropical crops for California at that time. The California Avocado Society was organized in 1915, and the publication of its reports biennially and later as a yearbook has had a profound, lasting effect on the development of the avocado industry in California and elsewhere. Establishment of the "Calavo" trademark in 1926 accompanied by the firmly enforced decision to stamp it only on first-grade fruit from one of two specific lists, one designated for local sales only and the other for shipment and local sales, gave guidance that helped establish important markets (Hodgkin, 1926). Three years later significant competition from California was being felt in Florida (Brooks, 1929). Publication in the Society's yearbook of lists of cultivars approved for commercial production in California gave valuable guidance to growers and marketers through the years.

    b. Florida. West Indian avocados evidently were introduced to Florida during Spanish colonial days: seedlings at St. Augustine are recorded as having been killed by the severe freeze of 1835. Also, the first permanent settlers arriving in the Miami area, about 1850, found trees growing in hardwood hammocks there. By 1900 several commercial groves of West Indian seedlings were established near Miami. In the late 1890s, however, avocados were first successfully propagated by budding in Coconut Grove by George B. Cellon, making commercial nursery propagation of selected cultivars possible (Fairchild, 1945). Cellon accordingly established the first commercial avocado nursery in 1900. Among important West Indian cultivars developed and propagated commercially (by dates) in Florida are 'Pollock' (1901), 'Trapp' (1901), 'Waldin' (1917), 'Simmonds' (1921), 'Fuchs' (1926) and 'Peterson' (1928). (Wolfe et al., 1934) All of these continue to be grown commercially, three ('Pollock', 'Waldin' and 'Simmonds') as major varieties (Fla. Avocado Admin. Committee, 1995). West Indian cultivars were the only important commercial avocados grown in Florida until the late 1920s, when competition from boatloads of seedling fruit brought from Cuba made it unprofitable to produce fruit for the summer market here. In 1929 the Ways and Means Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives was contacted in an effort to get a tariff put on avocado imports, but this failed (Brooks, 1929). Depression days intensified market pressures from Cuba, and this situation gave the newly-developed Guatemalan-West Indian hybrids (which ripen in fall and winter) their first commercial opportunity, which they continue to exploit.

Pollock Avocado
Persea americana 'Pollock'
Simmonds Avocado
Persea americana 'Simmonds'

USDA began to bring seeds of Guatemalan avocados into Florida in 1906, before which time all commercial propagation there was of West Indian seedlings of local origin. The first Guatemalan avocados that fruited created great interest because their fruit ripened during the spring months, greatly extending the season of ripening in Florida. In 1914 Wilson Popenoe, employed as a plant explorer by USDA, selected budwood from Guatemalan and Mexican avocados growing in California and brought it to Florida. In the same year O. F. Cook, another USDA plant explorer, made the first selections of budwood in Guatemala. (Wolfe et al., 1934) Wilson Popenoe later made a thorough exploration for avocados in Guatemala (Popenoe, 1919).

In the early days of the industry there was a certain amount of interchange among California and Florida growers, some of whom were members of the California Avocado Society. 'Fuerte' was tried seriously in Florida and was found to be productive and cold tolerant but not resistant to fungal disease (principally anthracnose) under Florida's humid conditions. ('Hass' later showed the same difficulty, and also bore small fruit which cracked.) 'Fuerte' aside, California nevertheless made an important contribution to the Florida industry.

Of six pure Guatemalan cultivars grown commercially at one time in Florida ('Itzamna', 'Linda', 'Nabal', 'Schmidt', 'Taylor' and 'Wagner') only one, 'Taylor', continues to be grown as a minor variety. This is apparently because the Guatemalan race's adaptation to elevated, relatively cool sites does not equip its members to thrive under Florida's sea-level growing conditions, as a pioneer Florida grower, John Beach, reported to the California Avocado Society many years ago (Beach, 1923).

Nabal Avocado
Persea americana 'Nabal'

Lula Avocado
Persea americana 'Lula'

No Mexican introductions achieved commercial success in Florida.

Despite the lack of commercial success of Guatemalan avocados in Florida, their contribution to the gene pool of Florida's cultivars was of enormous significance. The crossing that went on between them and the older West Indian cultivars was, with a couple of exceptions ('Nirody' and 'Trappson'), accomplished without hand pollination.

That hybridization was significant to the industry. Guatemalan-West Indian hybrid cultivars over the last 60 years have become the backbone of Florida's industry. This resulted from a combination of economic and ecological factors. At the very time that competition from Cuba took the profit out of growing West Indian (summer) avocados in Florida during the Great Depression, cultivars belonging to this new hybrid group were found to fill a market "window" (autumn and winter) when there was not competition from the Caribbean. These hybrid cultivars have continued to be of major importance until today, although West Indian cultivars resumed market importance when trade with Cuba was interrupted in the early 1960s. One important member of this Florida group of hybrids, 'Lula'--named for George Cellon's wife-- originated from a seed of the original 'Taft' tree brought from California and planted at the Cellon nursery in 1915 (Fairchild, 1945). It was originally reported to be a Mexican-Guatemalan hybrid because the seed of 'Taft' it grew from had come from California (Wolfe et al., 1934). This contention has not been confirmed by modern methods of analysis, and Lula's morphology suggests that it may be a Guatemalan-West Indian hybrid. The seedling first fruited in 1919, and its commercial propagation began in 1921. It remains a "major variety" to this day despite a couple of disadvantages: susceptibility to scab disease (Sphaceloma persicae) and a large seed.

'Collinson' is another of the older Guatemalan-West Indian hybrids in Florida, having originated from a seed of 'Collins' planted at the USDA Plant Introduction Garden at Miami in 1915. The tree first fruited in 1920, was propagated commercially in 1922, and remains a minor commercial variety today although it has obvious defects such as extreme sensitivity to chilling injury, low productivity where there is not adequate cross-pollination and germination of the seed within the fruit if fruit remains on the tree after maturity. 'Tonnage' along with 'Lula' and 'Collinson' is one of the older hybrid cultivars, having been selected in 1921 and propagated commercially in 1930.

The most important group by far of Guatemalan-West Indian hybrids is made up of the numbered Booth cultivars. These owe their origin to seeds of Guatemalan trees that were growing in an experimental planting of mixed cultivars and selections belonging to W. J. and Isabelle Krome, proprietors of the Coral Reef Nurseries located in south Dade County, between Miami and Homestead. These cultivars stem from a collaboration between Mr. and Mrs. Krome and Will Booth, who in 1920 planted seeds of Guatemalan cultivars from the Krome experimental planting and grew them to fruiting age (W. H. Krome, pers. comm.). The tree designated 'Booth 2' first fruited in 1927, and others in the series entered production at about the same age. Booth seedlings 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 were propagated commercially in 1935 (Wolfe et al., 1949). At the present time, 'Booth 5', 'Booth 7' and 'Booth 8' are listed as major commercial varieties, 'Booth 1' and 'Booth 3' as minor commercial varieties (Fla. Avocado Admin. Committee 1995).

Since the mid-30s when the Booth seedlings were selected, other cultivars have been named and added to the commercial list, some of major importance. Most show characteristics of both races although one at least, ('Tower 2') is probably of pure West Indian origin. Without much question interracial hybrids rather than the two original parental races have been involved in the open-pollinations that produced some of these seedlings, so it is difficult to determine whether a specific cultivar of this later group derives from the primary cross or from the backcrossing of a hybrid.

In 1942 the Avocado Variety Committee of the Florida State Horticultural Society published a report following the example of the California Avocado Society in publishing three lists, the first of cultivars in commercial production, plantings not being extended ('Pollock', 'Simmonds', 'Trapp', 'Peterson', 'Winslowson', 'Collinson', 'Linda', 'Wagner', 'Schmidt', and 'Itzamna'); the second of cultivars in commercial production, plantings being extended ('Fuchs', 'Waldin', 'Booth 8', 'Booth 7', 'Hickson', 'Lula', 'Taylor', and 'Nabal'); the third of seedlings of promise meriting more extensive trial. This last group was broken up into two subgroups, "Varieties being tried extensively" ('Booth 1', 'Booth 3', 'Bonita', 'Hall', 'Harris', 'Herman' and 'Tonnage'), and "Seedling varieties now being give limited trial" ('Booth 7-B', Booth 10', 'Booth 11', 'Byars', 'Choquette', 'Edmonds', 'Frank', and 'Lindgren'). (Krome, 1942)

It is interesting to note that some 53 years after these evaluations, we still find 'Pollock', 'Simmonds', 'Booth 8', 'Booth 7', 'Hall', and 'Lula' carried as "major varieties", while 'Peterson', 'Collinson', 'Fuchs', 'Hickson', 'Taylor', 'Booth 1' and 'Booth 3' are still being marketed as "minor varieties" (Fla. Avo. Admin. Committee, 1995). Subsequent reports from the Avocado Variety Committee have provided useful information over a period of years.

Cultivars of major commercial importance among avocados propagated since 1935 include 'Dr. Dupuis #2' (patented 1962; Krome 1967), 'Nadir' (Krome 1959), 'Nesbitt' (registered 1954), 'Tower 2', 'Black Prince', 'Choquette', 'Hall', and 'Monroe'. Currently in Florida the tendency is to plant large-fruited cultivars to take advantage of the demand for such fruit among Hispanic ethnic groups, to whom fruit of this type is familiar (C. W. Campbell, pers. comm.). This reverses the earlier trend toward selecting smaller-fruited kinds in response to competition from California (Brooks, 1929).

Dr. Dupuis 2
Persea americana 'Dr. Dupuis 2'
Monroe Avocado
Persea americana 'Monroe'

Exportation of Germplasm
California and Florida have both made important contributions to avocado culture in the rest of the world. Cultivars that achieved their first major development in California, notably 'Fuerte' and later 'Hass', have been exported to achieve commercial dominance in those parts of the world having Mediterranean-type climates similar to those of the avocado-growing regions of California. It is less known, perhaps, that cultivars developed in Florida have been exported with similar success to tropical and warm-subtropical lowlands about the world with climates similar to that of south Florida.

Early in the 20th century P. J. Wester took improved West Indian cultivars to the Philippines to add to those already being grown there. Later, Guatemalan-West Indian cultivars were taken to Cuba, Puerto Rico and other Caribbean islands where their ability to extend the marketing season was appreciated and exploited. 'Lula' grown in the French Caribbean has been marketed in France for many years. In the 1970s and later USAID projects directed toward agricultural development resulted in the shipment of scions and seed of Florida cultivars (and others deemed worth trial) to several equatorial African and South American countries (Table 1). Other distributions of avocado germplasm have continued to be made from USDA's Miami station to numerous warm parts of the world.

At the present time orchards of Florida cultivars ('Booth 7', 'Booth 8', 'Choquette', 'Hall', 'Monroe', 'Peterson', 'Pollock', 'Simmonds', 'Taylor', 'Tonnage') can be found in all the Central American countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras. Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama) and in South American (Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil, Venezuela). The fruit from these plantings is consumed within the countries for the most part. In the Dominican Republic several Florida cultivars are planted extensively for export to the USA. (C. W. Campbell, pers. comm.) 'Booth 7' and 'Booth 8', along with 'Lula', 'Hall' and 'Choquette' have been planted in coastal plain situations in Mexico although their fruit is not preferred by the people who live there (Malo, 1970). A number of Florida cultivars are recommended for planting in São Paulo State, Brazil, as are 'Fuerte' and 'Linda' (Wiltbank, 1977).

Literature Cited
Beach, J. W. 1923. The Florida avocado situation. Annual Report California Avocado Association 1922-23:45
Brooks, C. I. 1929. Avocados. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 42:123-129
Condit, I. J. 1916. History of the avocado in California. Report California Avocado Association 1916:105-106.
Fairchild, D. 1945. Personal recollections of George B. Cellon, horticultural pioneer of south Florida. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 58:205-209.
Fla. Avo. Admin. Committee. 1995. Adjusted Shipping Schedule 1995-96.
Hodgkin, G. B. 1926. "Calavo". Annual Report California Avocado Association 1925- 26:42-43.
Krome, W. H. 1942. Report of the avocado variety committee. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 55:122-125.
Krome, W H. 1959. The case for topworking avocados to standard varieties. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 72:303-305.
Krome, W. H. 1967. Avocado varieties I am planting now--and why. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 80:359-361.
Malo, S. E. 1970. Mango and avocado cultivars present status and future developments. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 83:357-362.
Popenoe, W. 1919. Avocados, particularly Guatemalans. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 32:88-104.
Popenoe, W. 1926. The parent Fuerte tree. Ann. Rept. Cal. Avo. Assn. 1925-26:24-33.
Wiltbank, W. J. 1977. Mango and avocado cultivars in Brazil. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 90:243-244.
Wolfe, H. S., Toy, L. R. and Stahl, A. L. 1934. Avocado production in Florida. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 272, Univ. of Fla. Gainesville.
Wolfe, H. S., Toy, L. R. and Stahl, A. L. (G. D. Ruehle, rev.). 1949. Avocado production in Florida. Bull 141, Agr. Exten. Service. Gainesville, Florida.

Table 1a. Distributions of Avocado Germplasm from USDA/ARS, Miami: 26 October 1933 to 01 October 1980 Jump to 6 January 1981 to July 1998

    Date Sent
   Sent To
Material Sent
26 Oct 33           
Island of Reunion      
Seeds: various cultivars.
28 Aug 33
Quangtri, Vietnam
Seeds: Pollock.
14 Feb 34
Jamaica (Dept. of Agr.)
Plants: Butler, Collinred B, Collinson, Dunedin, Gottfried, Itzamna, Kanan seedling, Nabal, Trapp.
7 Nov 36
Holguin, Cuba
Scions: Collinred B.
21 Jun 37
Dr. R. W. Hodgson
Plants: Arue.
21 Jun 37
Dr. H. P. Traub
USDA, Orlando, FL
Plants: Arue.
28 Dec 37

Dr. R. W. Hodgson
Plants: Seedless (Costa Rica), Small seeded (Costa Rica).
8 Jun 38

Mrs. I. B. Krome
Homestead, FL
Plant: Arue.
8 Jun 38

USDA Plant Inspection House,
Wash, DC
Seeds (40 WI) for stocks.
26 July 38

USDA Plant Inspection House,
Wash, DC
Seeds 50 for stocks.
17 Dec 38

Dr. H. P. Traub, USDA
Orlando, FL
Plants: Small-seeded (Costa Rica).
28 Dec 38
Dr. H. P. Traub, USDA
Plant: Seedless (Costa Rica).
29 May 40
H. M. Matheson,
Miami, FL
Plants: Small-seeded (Costa Rica).
12 Jan 42

US Plant Introd. Gard.
Glenn Dale, MD
10 Apr 44
US Plant Introd. Grad.
Glenn Dale, MD
Scions: Booth 1, 7 & 8, Collinred B (Fairchild), Collinson, Dickinson, Fuchs, Hickson, Itzamna, Linda, Lula, Nabal, Peterson, Pinelli, Pollock, Schmidt, Simmonds, Taft, Taylor, Trapp, Wagner, Waldin, Winslowson.
27 Jan 50

Univ. of Miami
Coral Gables, FL
Plants: Arue, Biscayne, Capac.
28 Feb 50

F. L. Steely
Homestead, FL
Plant: Arue.
14 Mar 50

E. W. Brown
Pierson, FL
Plants: Arue, Biscayne
5 Sept 50

E. H. Sauerbrey US Botanic Gard.,
Wash DC
Plants: Biscayne.
25 Oct 50

V. V. Virrick
Coconut Grove, FL
Scions: Tela.
7 Feb 51

F. M. Henderson
Princeton, FL
Scions: Arue.
15 Feb 51
W. F. Herman
S. Miami, FL
Scions: Arue.
21 Feb 51
Dr. F. E. Hasty
Coral Gables, FL
Scions: Arue.
7 May 51
J. J. Hawkins
Miami, FL
Scions: Arue.
8 May 51
F. M. Henderson
Princeton, FL
Plant: Arue.
6 Nov 51
I. D. Ebersole
Homestead, FL
Scions: Biscayne.
17 Dec 51
H. F. Winters, USDA
Mayagüez, PR
Scions: Arue.
17 Mar 54
H. F. Winters, USDA
Mayagüez, PR
Scions: Arue
30 Jun 54
Mrs. J. W. Lowe
Homestead, FL
Scions: Arue, Capac.
19 July 55
L. Whitlock
Miami, FL
Scions: Arue
22 Sept 55
A. J. Dubreuil
Miami, FL
Scions: Arue
28 Sept 56
US Plant Insp. House
Wash, DC
8 Oct 57
H.F. Winters, USDA
Glenn Dale, MD
20 Dec 57
APO 74
San Francisco, CA
Seeds: Booth (no number), Collinson, Herman, Hickson,  Kanan, Lula, Simpson.
23 Sep 58
US Plant Introd. Sta.
Chico, CA
Seeds: Dade, Gottfried, Isham, Simmonds sdlg, 3 W.I. sdlgs.
22 Oct 58
US Plant Introd. Sta.
Chico, CA
Seeds: Costa Rican, Dickinson, Gottfried sdlg, Kanan sdlg, Kayab, Lula, Tela, Tonnage, Waldin, 3 W.I. sdlgs.

31 Oct 58
US Plant Introd. Sta.
Chico, CA
Seeds: Itzamna, Kanan, Simmonds sdlg, Waldin, W.I. sdlg.
12 Nov 58
US Plant Introd. Sta.
Chico, CA
Seeds: Booth 1, Booth 8, Lula, Taylor.
7 Mar 59
Punjab Agric. Coll.
Lyallpur, Pakistan
Scions: Booth 8, Lula, Waldin.
1 Apr 59
Dr. G. A. Zentmyer
U CA Riverside
Seeds: Dunedin, Lula.
4 May 59
Dr. B. O. Bergh
U CA Riverside
Scions: Ettinger.
4 Aug 59
27 Aug 59
Dr. G. A. Zentmyer
U CA Riverside
Seeds: Arue, Capac, Cellon's Hawaii, Cellon's Hawaii sdlg, Collins sdlg, Costa Rica, Gottfried, Gottfried sdlg, Mexican sdlg 713-B, unidentified sdlg.
4 Sept 59
US Plant Inspn House,
for Pakistan
Scions: Pollock, Waldin.
30 Sept 59
3 Aug 60
Dr. G. A. Zentmyer
U CA Davis
Seeds: Butler, Capac, Cellon's Hawaii, Cellon's Hawaii sdlg, Collinred sdlg, Collinred F-2 sdlg, Collinson, Dade, Gottfried sdlg, Kanan, Lamat, Lula, Manik, Peterson,
Simmonds, Simmonds sdlg, Trappson, W.I. sdlg.
2 Mar 61
Dr. C. W. Campbell
U FL Homestead
Scions: Cellon's Hawaii.
24 Mar 61
Dr. G. A. Zentmyer
U CA Davis
Scions: Cellon's Hawaii, Cellon's Hawaii sdlgs (4), Hawaii.
3 Oct 61 

Dr. G. A. Zentmyer
U CA Davis
Seeds: Cellon's Hawaii sdlg M6900.
12 Jan 62 

Hugo Bow
Pahokee, FL
Scions: Cellon's Hawaii sdlg, Tela.
31 July 62
W.L. Ackerman
US Plant Introd. Sta.
Glenn Dale, MD
Seeds: W.I. sdlg.
16 Aug 62
16 Nov 62
Dr. G. A. Zentmyer
U CA Riverside
Seeds: Cellon's Hawaii, Cellon's Hawaii sdlgs (3), Cellon's Hawaii M6900.
15 Mar 63
H. F. Loomis
Miami, FL
Plants: Family.
27 Sept 63 

Judge G. T. Shannon
Lakeland, FL
Plant: Yon.
14 Oct 63
F. Chawanonda
Bangkok, Thailand
Seeds: Collinson, Dade, Lula.
20 Feb 64
R. R. Mason, Agric.
Officer, Kowloon,
Hong Kong
Plants: Booth 8, Lula, Waldin.
24 Feb 64
R. M. Bond St. Croix,
US Virgin Islands
Scions: Arue, Arue sdlg 2-18.
2 Mar 64
J. A. Austin
Mandarin, FL
Plants: Fuca, Tenerife.
31 July 64
K.G. McIndoe
Leesburg, FL
Scions: Brooksville Mexican, Family, Nabal, Taylor.
21 Dec 64
Dr. E. O. Olson
Weslaco, TX
Scions: Brooksville, Mexican.
11 Mar 65
Burt Colburn
Homestead, FL
Scions: Seedless Mexican.
26 Apr 65
R.R. Mason, Agric.
Officer, Kowloon,
Hong Kong
Plants: Booth 8.
24 May 65
US Plant Insp. House
Wash, DC
Plants: Chapultepec Park (Mexico).
11 Feb 66
J. W. Swain
Inverness, FL
Plants: Mexican sdlg, wild Guat. sdlg, Taylor.
18 Feb 66
US Embassy
Dakar, Senegal
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Collinson, Lula, Nabal, Peterson, Pollock.
13 June 66
USAID Lagos, Nigeria
Scions: Booth 8, Fuerte, Itzamna, Nabal, Pollock, Taylor.
13 June 66
US Embassy
Dakar, Senegal
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Collinson, Lula, Nabal, Peterson, Pollock.
13 June 66
Plant Quarantine Service
Accra, Ghana
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Fuchs, Lula, Monroe, Pollock, Ruehle, Taylor, Tonnage, Trapp, Waldin.
12 Sept 66
USAID Lagos,
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Fuchs, Lula, Monroe, Pollock, Ruehle, Taylor, Tonnage, Trapp, Waldin.
12 Sept 66
Plant Quarantine Service
Accra, Ghana
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Fuchs, Lula, Monroe, Pollock, Ruehle, Taylor, Tonnage, Trapp, Waldin.
29 Nov 66
USAID Cotonou,
Scions: Choquette, Monroe, Pollock, Ruehle.
9 Mar 67
S. Malo, U of FL
Homestead, FL
Scions: Capac, Dade, Duke, Dunedin, Egas, Ettinger, Family, Isham, Manik, Seedless Mexican, Tamayo, Tela,
17 Mar 67
D. F. Kiesau, Miami, FL
Scions (Collinred B (Fairchild).
12 Apr 67
W.R. Llewellyn
Asst County Agent Sanford, FL
Scions: Collinson, High-elevation Guatemalan, Winter Mexican, Yon.
22 May 67
D.W. Levandowsky
US Embassy, Santo
Domingo, Dom. Rep.
Scions: Nabal.
12 Jun 67
Mrs. M. Davidson,
Ministry of Agric.
Kingston, Jamaica
Scions: Choquette, Collinred B (Fairchild), Ettinger, Fuchs, Ruehle.
20 Jun 67
USAID Santo Domingo, Dom. Rep.
Scions: Booth 8, Dunedin, Nabal.
14 Sept. 67
A.L. Núñez
Caracas, Venezuela
Scions: Hass, Fuerte, Nabal.
18 Sept 67 

US Plant Introd. Sta.
Chico, CA
Plants: Brooksvillle Mexican, Chapultepec Park (Mexico), Gainesville.
18 Jan 68
US Plant Introd. Sta.
Glenn Dale, MD
13 Feb 68
US Plant Intod. Sta.
Savannah, GA
Plants: Romain #1
18 Mar 68
T.J. Anderson
Mulberry, FL
Scions: Itzamna
13 Aug 68
D.F. Kiesau
Miami, FL
Plant: Arue
22 Aug 68 

C.S. Bush
Gainesville, FL
Plant: Brooksville Mexican.
17 Sept 68
L.H. Purdy Plant Pathology
U FL, Gainesville
Plants: Fuerte, Taylor
7 Mar 69
Dr. Ch. Oppenheimer
Scions: Collinred B, Peterson, Simmonds, Taylor, Waldin, Winslowson.
3 Nov 69
Seeds: Arue seedlings (for rootstocks).
20 Feb 70
J. Albert, Peace Corps
Dahomey, W. Africa
Scions: Choquette, Collinred B, Collinson, Dade, Lula, Ruehle, Simmonds, Trapp, Waldin, Wilson
2 July 70
Republic of Mali
Scions: Fuerte, Hass, Monroe, Nabal, Ruehle.
9 July 70
USAID/Sto. Domingo
Scions: Booth 8, Borrego, Catalina, José Antonio, Ruehle, Waldin.
17 July 70
Culiacán, Mexico
Scions: Itzamna.
18 Jun 71
Plant Inspection House, Wash DC
(export, unspecified)
Scions: Bacon, Brooksville, Chapultepec Park, Fuerte, Gainesville, Hass.
4 Sep 71
50 seeds each: Dade, Trappson.
29 Sep 72
Cruz das Almas,
Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Collinson, Fuerte, Fuchs, Ile de France, Kosel, Ruehle, Tonnage, Waldin, Wilson Popenoe.
3 Dec 72
Georgetown, Guyana
Scions: Black Prince, Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Collinred B, Dade, Donaldson, Lula, Ruehle, Simmonds, Waldin.
4 Dec 72 
Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Collinson, Fuerte, Waldin.
16 Feb 73
Bunso, Ghana
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Fuchs, Lula, Monroe, Waldin.
18 Apr 73
Bet Dagan, Israel
Scions: Collinred B.
24 Apr 73
Guayaquil, Ecuador
Scions: Booth 8, Borrego, Choquette, Collinred B, Collinson, Dade, Ruehle, Simmonds, Waldin, Wilson Popenoe.
12 Oct 73
USAID/Panama, Balboa
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Simmonds, Waldin.
24 Oct 73
Cruz das Almas,
Bahia, Brazil
Scions: Dunedin, DWI Bank, Lima Late, Suardia, Wilson Popenoe, Yon.
25 Feb 74
Salvador, Bahia Brazil
Scions: 2-18, Meléndez 2.
26 Mar 74
Adelphi, St. James Jamaica
Scions: Meléndez 2.
7 Oct 74
Auckland, NZ
Scions: Collinred B.
24 Feb 75
USAID/Ghana, Accra
Scions: Booth 8, Choquette, Collinson, Lula, Ruehle, Waldin.
7 Mar 75
Sto. Domingo de los
Colorados, Ecuador
Scions: Collinred B, Dade, Simmonds, Trapp, Waldin.
17 Jul 75
Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico
Scions: Itzamna.
12 Aug 75
Bet Dagan, Israel
Scions: Arue, Dade, Gen. Bureau, Ile de France, Tonnage, Trapp, Utuado.
28 Aug 75
U of Hawaii, Honolulu
Scions: Antigua Market, Kosel, Morocco #42, Progreso Late, Vero Beach (GRD).
9 Feb 76
Scions: Lula, Peterson, Ruehle, Suardia, Trapp, Winter Mexican.
20 Feb 76
Bet Dagan, Israel
Scions: Gripiña 5, Romain, Tonnage, Trapp.
16 Nov 76
PQ Service, Jaffa, Israel
Scions: Bernecker, CRC 195-36, Day, Gainesville, Sharwil.
1 Dec 76
Jaboticabal, SP Brazil
Scions: Brooks Late, Dunedini, Gripiña 5, Itzamna, Suardia.
9 Dec 76
Scions: Waldin, Teague.
9 Dec 77
Scions: Fuerte, Peterson, Ruehle, Trapp.
10 Dec 78
Scions: Booth 7, Choquette.
21 Dec 78
Seeds: Booth 7, Lula.
12 Jan 79
Hilo, Hawaii
Scions: Dr. Dupuis #2.
17 May 79
Scions: DWI Bank, Waldin.
28 Aug 79
U CA Riverside (for genetic analysis, to Dr. B. O. Bergh)
Scions: Capac, Collinred B, Collinson, Dade, Dunedin, DWI Bank, Family, Gen. Bureau, Ile de France, Kosel, Simmonds, Trappson, Wester, W.I. sdlg (W4-1-12-6).
2 Oct 79
FAO/Nairobi, Kenya
Scions: Booth 1, Booth 7, Booth 8, Catalina, Choquette, Dr. Dupuis #2, Hardee, Lula, Pollock, Ruehle, Simmonds, Taylor, Trapp.
17 Jan 80
Univ. Guam
Scions: Booth 7, Simmonds, Waldin.
7 Feb 80
Bet Dagan, Israel
Scions: Fuerte Popenoe, Guayabamba, Gen. Francisco Robles, Reina Victoria, 14371 (W. Popenoe hybrid).
10 Apr 80
Scions: Booth 7, Catalina, Choquette, Collinred B, Dade, Pollock, Simmonds, Waldin.
9 May 80
Mahe, Seychelles
Scions: Booth 8, Choquette, Gottfried, Lula, Monroe, Peterson, Simmonds, Teague, Tonnage, Waldin.
20 May 80
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Catalina, Choquette, Lula, Monroe, Peterson, Pollock, Ruehle, Simmonds, Taylor, Tonnage, Trapp, Winter Mexican.
13 Aug 80
Seeds: Brooksville
26 Aug 80
U Hawaii, Honolulu
Scions: Dr. Dupuis #2.
17 Sep 80
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Gottfried, Lula, Nesbitt, Peterson, Pollock, Semil 34, Semil 44, Tonnage, Waldin.
1 Oct 80
Scions: Ettinger.

Table 1b. Distributions of Avocado Germplasm from USDA/ARS, Miami: 6 January 1981 to July 1998 Top of table 1a.

    Date Sent
Sent to
Material sent

6 Jan 81                       
Yunnan Inst. Trop. Botany, China
Seeds: Lula.
27 July 81
PQ Service, Kenya
Scions: Catalina, Lula, Nabal, Peterson, Taylor, Waldin.
29 July 81
National Bur. of Plant
Genet. Resources,
New Delhi, India
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Dickinson, DWI Bank, Ettinger, Fuchs, Nabal, Pollock, Queen, Ruehle, Seedless, Sharwil, Tova, Waldin.
7 Apr 82
Scions: Fuerte, Gripiña 5, Itzamna, Linda, Lula, McDonald, Monroe, Nabal, Pollock, Ruehle, Seedless Mexican, Sharwil.
2 Aug 82
Seeds: Booth 8, Fuchs, Waldin.
9 Dec 82
Scions: Bacon, Choquette, Lula, Monroe, Taylor, Tonnage.
16 Nov 82
Seeds: Bacon, Dade, Ettinger, Trappson.
31 Nov 82
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Dupuis #2, Lula, Monroe, Simmonds, Waldin.
10 Jan 83
Scions: Booth 1, Booth 8, Choquette, Collinred B, Lula,
Monroe, Simmonds, Waldin.
2 Mar 83
St. Lucia, W.I.
Scions: Choquette, Monroe, Simmonds, Tonnage.
8 Apr 83
Scions: Collinson, Simmonds, Waldin.
15 Jul 83
Scions: Booth 8, Brooks Late, Catalina, Dr. Dupuis #2, Fuchs, Gainesville, Marcus Pumpkin, Lula, Monroe, Nesbitt, Peterson, Pollock, Ruehle, Semil 44, Simmonds, Taylor, Teague, Trapp, Waldin, Wilson Popenoe, Yon, Young #1.
9 Sep 83
Costa Rica
Scions: Catalina, Lula, Pollock, Suardia, Taylor.
16 Sep 83
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Simmonds, Waldin.
20 Oct 83
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Dr. Dupuis #2, Kampong, Peterson, Pollock, Tower 2, Waldin.
28 Oct 83
Scions: Brooks Late, Dr. Dupuis #2, Fuchs, Marcus Pumpkin, Nesbitt, Peterson, Semil 34, Semil 44, Wilson Popenoe.
11 Nov 83
Costa Rica
Scions: Choquette, Monroe, Pollock, Simmonds, Waldin.
21 Nov 83
Scions: Booth 8, Dade, Monroe, Nabal, Sharwil, Simmonds, Waldin.
28 Nov 83
Natl. Bur. of Plant
Genet. Res. India
Scions: Waldin.
24 Jan 84
Scions: Booth 8, Choquettte, Collinson, Duke, Ettinger, Fuerte, Lula, Simmonds, 6836.
21 Mar 84
Scions: Bacon, Choquette, Lula, Monroe, Taylor, Tonnage.
25 May 84 
Scions: Fuerte, Gottfried, Monroe, Waldin.
27 Jul 84
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Choquette, Lula, Monroe, Pollock, Simmonds, Tonnage, Waldin.
1 Aug 84
Seeds: Choquette, Kosel, Lula, Monroe, Nabal, Pollock, Ruehle, Taylor, Tonnage, Waldin.
20 Sep 84
Seeds: Tonnage.
26 Sep 84
Scions: Bacon, Booth 8, Duke, Fuerte, Lula, Nabal, Peterson, Pollock, Ruehle, Trapp, Waldin, Wertz, Wester.
24 Jan 85
Jalisco, Mexico
Scions: Arue, Choquette, Collinred B, Dr. Dupuis #2, Lula, Marcus Pumpkin, Peterson, Progreso Late, Ruehle, Seedless, Seedless Mexican, Sharwil, Persea schiediana.
26 Feb 85
Scions: Choquette, Tonnage.
10 Apr 85
Madeira (Portugal)
Scions: Ettinger.
16 July 85
Scions: Booth 8, Choquette, Lula, Monroe, Simmonds, Waldin.
1 Aug 85
Scions: Borrego, Catalina, DWI Bank, Dr. Dupuis #2, Ein Vered, Gripiña 5, Gripiña 12, Horshim, Ile de France, Marsheline, Nesbitt, Nordshtein, Sharwil, Shomrat, Suardia.
19 Aug 85
Scions: Lula, Monroe, Pollock, Simmonds.
11 Sep 85
St. Lucia, W. I.
Scions: Ile de France, Tonnage.
8 Oct 85
Scions: Booth 8, Choquette, Lula, Monroe, Simmonds, Waldin.
6 May 86
Scions: Booth 8, Choquette.
1 Aug 86
Kew, Richmond, U.K.
Cuttings: Simmonds.
18 Aug 86
Scions: Bacon, Booth 7, Booth 8, Brooks Late, Catalina, Collins, Dourado, Fuca, Fuerte, Irwing 96, McDonald, Pollock, Simmonds, Trapp, Ward.
20 Nov 86
St. Vincent, W.I.
Scions: Choquette, Collinred B, Monroe, Suardia, Wilson Popenoe.
00 000 87
St. Vincent, W.I.
Scions: Choquette, Collinred B, Monroe, Suardia, Wilson Popenoe.
5 Feb 87
Scions: Bacon, Booth 7, Ettinger, Lima Late, Lula, Monroe, Sharwil, Tower 2.
10 Feb 87
Scions: Wertz.
18 Feb 87
The Gambia
Seeds: Persea americana (undesignated).
3 Sep 87
Scions: Booth 7, Booth 8, Duke, Hass, Nabal, Pollock, Taylor, Waldin.
17 Sep 87
Scions: Choquette, Tonnage, Fuerte.
18 Nov 87
Scions: Catalina, Pollock, Simmonds, Trapp.
20 Nov 87
Scions: Catalina, Choquette, Duke, Fuerte, José Antonio, Netaim.
30 Dec 87
Scions: Borrego, Catalina, Dr. Dupuis #2, DWI Bank, Ile de France, Nesbitt, Suardia.
4 Oct 89
Scions: Bacon, Ettinger.
6 Sep 91
Scions: Pancho
25 Aug 93
Lahore, Pakistan
Seeds: Collins sdlg (3897), Family, Pollock.
12 Oct 94
Roseau, Dominica
Scions: Dr. Dupuis #2, Monroe.
20 Nov 94
Bet Dagan, Israel
Scions: Bacon, Brooks Late, Tonnage.
29 Sep 95
Puerto Rico
Scions: Aycock Red #1, Biscayne, Brooks Late, Dunedin, Gen. Bureau, Gen. Francisco Robles, Irwing 134, Meléndez 2, Morocco #42, Walden, Wester.
8 Jan 96
Virgin Islands
Seeds: Lula.
20 Aug 96
Puerto Rico
Scions: Gen. Bureau, Kosel, Meléndez 2, Morocco #42, Morocco #43, Romain #1, Taylor, Tonnage, Trapp, Waldin.
25 Nov 96
Virgin Islands
Seeds: Dade.
31 Jul 97
Seeds: Dade, Family.
25 Aug 97
Cayman Islands
Seeds: Maxima.
12 Mar 98
U FL, Homestead
Immature fruit for research: Dwarf Herman.
19 Mar 98 
U FL, Homestead
Immature fruit for research: Dwarf Herman, Lima Late, Seedless Mexican.
26 Mar 98
U FL, Homestead
Immature fruit for research: Dade, Isham, Lima Late.
16 July 98
Hong Kong, China
Scions: Brooks Late, Choquette, Dade, Dr. Dupuis #2, Family, Jose Antonio, Lula, Monroe, Nabal, Nesbitt, Pinkerton, Pollock, Sharwil, Simmonds, Tenerife, Tonnage, Tower 2, Waldin.
Source: Distribution records, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, USDA/ARS, Miami, Fla.

Avocado Images in this article credited to:
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.

Dr. Robert J. Knight photo credit: University of Florida

Without the kind assistance of Wilhelmina C. Wasik, Biological Research Technician, of GRIN Database Records & Germplasm Distributions National Clonal Germplasm Repository - Miami, Florida USDA-ARS, SHRS we would not have had the Persea americana photographs for this publication.

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